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Ingredients of Bread Making

Here are basic ingredients you may find in Japan. Learn more about wheat flour, other flour and powders, fat and oil, salt and water, sugar, eggs and dairy products, yeast, dried fruit and nuts, chocolate, and flavouring.

Wheat Flour

Ground wheat germ.

In Japan, types of flour vary from high-gluten flour (sai-kyouriki-ko) to soft flour (hakuriki-ko) according to the protein content. Flour can also be graded according to the ash content.

Wheat grains to be ground in Japan are mostly imported from such countries as Canada, United States and Australia, but original Japanese grains are also available.

( Komugi-ko )

Kneading a mixture of wheat flour and water allows protein in the flour to form an elastic substance called gluten. Its elasticity builds a framework for bread and retains gas emitted by yeast to help the dough rise during fermentation.

High Gluten Flour

Wheat flour that has the highest protein content (approximately 14%).

In general, it is used for bread with full volume and soft texture, such as pan bread (Yama-shokupan). A small amount may also be used with low-gluten flours, such as rye flour, to improve a bread’s texture.

( Sai-kyouriki-ko )

The stronger the gluten is, the more water is absorbed in the dough and more kneading is required. Fully developed gluten will increase the volume of the bread.

Hard Flour

Wheat flour that has high protein content (11.5∼13.5%).

It can be used for all kinds of breads, but is not as suitable for some baked goods such as cakes.

( Kyouriki-ko )

Pure Japanese wheat flour is prized for its delicate and rich flavor. It absorbs less water* than flour made of imported wheat grains, and the bread made of it may not rise high. The price is a little higher than other wheat flour as well.

*Rate of water absorption may vary according to crops, its cultivating area and season. 

French Bread Flour

Wheat flour that has protein more than Hakuriki-ko (which is very similar to Cake and pastry flour) but less than Kyouriki-ko (which is very similar to Bread flour), and forms strong gluten.

( Jun-kyouriki-ko )

Jun-kyouriki-ko is suitable for baking lean bread such as French baguette. Some products may be indicated as "French Bread Flour" in Japan.

All-purpose Flour

Wheat flour that has more protein content (approximately 10 to 12%) than Hakuriki-ko (soft flour) but less than Kyouriki-ko (Hard flour) with an intermediate gluten level.

( Churiki-ko )

Churiki-ko is very similar to all-purpose flour.

You can substitute all–purpose flour for self-raising flour, adding 2% of the weight of baking powder to it.

Soft Flour

Wheat flour that has the lowest protein content (approximately no more than 10.5%) among all.

It is widely used for cooking (such as tempura batter), baking cakes, pastries, and soda bread in Japan.

( Hakuriki-ko )

In order to make crispy tempura, you should not mix batter too much, since gluten in flour only improves its stickiness. It is always best to mix flour with icy cold water and eggs for crispiness.

Whole-Wheat Flour

Flour made from the whole grain of wheat. It has a rich flavour and contains great amount of minerals and fibers.

In Japan, there are some variations according to finesse of grind. Some products are labeled for its purpose, such as bread baking or cake-and-pastry baking.

( Zenryu-fun )

Since whole-wheat grain flour includes oil-rich germ that can easily go rancid, the quality may decline more quickly than other kinds of wheat flour. It is recommended to buy only the amount you need, and it should be stored in the fridge.

Rye Flour

Flour made from rye grains.

The protein content of rye flour is about the same as Kyouriki-ko (strong flour), but it does not form gluten. Most rye flour distributed in Japan is whole-ground, and it is graded coarse, medium, and fine grind.

( Raimugi-ko )

Dough made of rye flour tends to be wet and sticky. Because it does not develop gluten, rye bread can easily become dense and hard. Therefore, it is recommended to mix in strong wheat flours to help the bread rise, while the distinctive rye flavour will remain.

Semolina Flour (or Durum Semolina)

This is the ground endosperm of durum wheat, and is used to make Italian pasta.

There are many types according to the fineness of its grind. In Japan, however, only the fine grind is available.

Durum semolina flour has high protein content, but the gluten is rather week and not suitable for bread making.

( Duramu-ko )

Since this flour does not form strong gluten, it can be used as dusting flour for bakers.


A starch made from corn grain.

( Cornstarch )

Once cornstarch is gelatinized, it is quite stable and resists temperature changes. For this characteristic of cornstarch, it is widely used for thickening sauce and cream.

Corn Flour (Finely Ground Cornmeal)

Finely ground flour of endosperm of dried corn grain.

( Corn Flour )

Mexican Bread, tortillas are normally made of corn flour. Ready-made mix powder for tortillas may be available in major supermarkets in Japan.


Coarsely ground flour of dried corn grain. Since the white heart of the corn kernel contains oil that can easily get rancid, some products may be ground without it.

( Cornmeal )

Coarsely ground cornmeal is also known as corn grits. Adding a little bit of corn grits to your dough may give your bread a unique chewy texture.

Almond Powder

Ground flour of almond.

In Japan, it may also be called almond poudre (poudre means "powder" in French).

( Almond Poudre )

Because of the oil contained in almond powder, it can easily go rancid. It is recommended to buy only the amount you need, and it should be stored in the fridge.

Wheat Gluten Powder

Ground flour of wheat protein that develops gluten.

For baked goods, wheat gluten powder may be mixed with low-gluten flour, such as rye flour.

( Gluten Powder )

For bread dough, you can mix wheat gluten powder to improve your dough, but no more than 2% of the weight of wheat flour to be mixed. Sift well with flour before adding other ingredients like water. You should also add 2% more water to the dough.

Malt Powder

Malt powder is made from sprouted grain of wheat that is dried, ground and then refined. Malt syrup is a thick, dark brown syrup made from maltose.

Adding malt syrup or powder to flour may accelerate the fermentation of the dough, improve the colour of crust, and delay rancidity of the bread.

( Malt Powder )

Malt powder can activate yeast in dough and accelerate fermentation. You can add about 0.3∼0.5% by weight to the dough. Adding more may make the dough sticky and wet.

Baking Powder

An inflating agent that contains sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), and an acid (such as tartaric acid and alum) that accelerates or controls carbon dioxide formation.

Excess aluminum (contained in alum) in the diet may be detrimental to human health, and so baking powders are available without it as well.

( Baking Powder )

When baking powder dissolves in the water of dough, it will emit gas that will make the bread rise in oven. Baking powder should be kept in an airtight container, as it gets damp easily.


In Japan, you may find cultured butter and just "butter" (that refers to sweet cream butter). They come in either salted and unsalted forms.

( Butter )

To prevent rancidity, butter should be covered tightly in foil and kept in fridge under 5℃. This also helps prevent butter from picking up other odours.

Cultured Butter

Butter made from a fermented cream.

It has a stronger flavour and aroma, and less preservative than sweet cream butter.

( Hakko-Butter )

Cultured butter may be available in major supermarkets in Japan.

Sweet Cream Butter

Butter used most commonly at home in Japan.

It is made from pasteurized cream, and has salted and unsalted forms. In general, unsalted butter is used for baking and pastry making purpose. Salted butter typically lasts longer than unsalted one.

( Mi-Hakko-Butter )

Butter, when it is heated, is separated into three layers; the light bubbly substance at the top; water soluble protein and sugar at the bottom; and in between, there is a clear liquid called "pure butter" or "clarified butter". This pure butter is consisted of pure milk fat, and can be used for coating baked goods such as stollen.


A solid fat made of vegetable or/and animal fat and hydrogenated oil (that is produced by adding hydrogen to the liquid oil so that it forms the solid texture).

No flavour is added and so it is best to mix into breads that do not require a butter flavour.

( Shortening )

As it is reported that trans fats may increase the risk of heart disease, trans fat free shortenings are now available in major supermarkets in Japan. Pure vegetable shortenings are also available.

Olive Oil

Oil extracted from olives. It contains a large amount of oleic acid, and polyphenol antioxidant.

Extra virgin olive oil is obtained from the first pressing of the olive without any high-heat treatment, and contains no more than 0.8% acidity and no additives. It has a great taste and flavour.

( Olive Oil )

Like any other oil products, it can easily get rancid. To prevent this, it is always better to buy in a small amount and do not keep it long once the bottle is open.

Grape Seed Oil

A vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of grapes. It has a clean, light taste that has been described as "nutty".

( Grape Seed Oil )

Because of its "neutral" taste, grape seed oil is often used as an ingredient in salad dressings or in homemade mayonnaise. For bake goods, it can be mixed in dough, and used for greasing a baking pan.


Cooking salt made primarily from sodium chloride.

In Japan, it is categorized as either refined or natural. Also, there are varieties of salt groups according to its original material (such as sea or rock).

( Shio )

Salt can control the fermentation of dough and improve the taste of bread. It can also control and tighten the gluten’s structure, so that the texture of crumb and color of crust will be improved.

Salt for bread making should be dry and powdery. If your salt is damp, it is recommended to spread it in a clean pan, and place under heat for a few minutes to let excess water evaporate. Sift it well when it is cold enough to handle.


When baking bread, hard water is preferred over soft water.  Water with slight acidity is also preferable since alkalinity could  disturb fermentation of dough and loosen its gluten structures.

( Inryou-sui )

For most bread, dough ready for the first fermentation should be at 20 to 30℃, which is suitable for yeast activation. Preparing water at the right temperature can control this.

Water to be mixed with yeast should not be over 40℃, since yeast activity drops at higher temperatures.

More details about water temperature settings are available at Crumb and Crust page.

Granulated Sugar

Refined white sugar with very fine crystal forms.

Japanese superfine sugar is made only from extracted sucrose sugar from the source syrup. For confectionery purpose, grains are finer so that it is easy to dissolve in a batter or dough, and can be mixed well with other ingredients.

( Guranyu-tou )

Sugar, honey and other sweeteners can control the structure of eggs as you whisk them. They can also improve the colour and taste of baked goods.

Refined white sugar can be used for bake goods, however, granulated sugar gives a lighter texture. For making jam, refined white sugar is recommended as it gives lighter and more delicate taste.

Refined White Sugar

The most common refined white sugar in Japan, and a kind of centrifugal sugar made only from extracted sucrose sugar from the source syrup. It is more sensitive to humidity, compared to granulated sugar, and so tends to become stiff easily.

( Jouhaku-tou )

Sift well before using, as refined white sugar tends to become damp and stiff.

Baked goods with refined white sugar are moister and sweeter than those made with granulated sugar.

Brown Sugar

Brown-colour lump or powdered sugar made by boiling sugarcane juice and drying with heat. It is made from sucrose sugar with molasses. It has distinctive taste and strong flavour and has high mineral content.

( Kuro-zatou )

Sift well before using, as brown sugar tends to become damp and stiff.

It goes very well in baked goods containing raisins or dark rum.

French Brown Sugar ( Cassonade )

A type of French brown sugar.

( Cassonade )

Sift well before using, as cassonade tends to become damp and stiff.

Cassonade can make a great match with spices like anis and clove, as used in French bread, and gingerbread.

Vanilla Sugar

Caster sugar flavoured with natural vanilla.

( Vanilla Sugar )

Vanilla sugar is easily made by putting a vanilla pod and sugar in an airtight container, and leaving it overnight.

Vanilla sugar is very versatile. For example, you can add some to whipped cream to make vanilla cream.

Cinnamon Sugar

Caster sugar mixed with cinnamon powder.

( Cinnamon Sugar)

To make cinnamon sugar, mix 200g of granulated sugar and 50g of cinnamon powder well, and put them in an airtight container with a cinnamon stick.

Nib Sugar

A type of refined sugar in nib crystal forms.

( Arare-tou )

Since nib sugar can become damp easily, it is best kept in a cool, airtight container with a drying agent.

Icing Sugar

A refined sugar in powdered form.

( Fun-tou/Kona-zatou )

For making icing, you should choose the one with 100% sugar for the best result. Once you open the bag, it is best to use it all at once if possible.


Collected from honeybees and derived from flowers. Its taste, flavour and aroma vary according to the source flowers.

( Hachi-mitsu )

When you make roll cake, adding some honey or starch syrup can make it moister and easier to roll up. It also makes the color darker.

Maple Syrup

A sweetener made by boiling the sap of maple (sugar maple) trees and drying with heat. It has distinctive taste and flavour, and is mainly produced in Canada.

Maple syrup is graded such that the lighter the colour, the higher the grade.

( Maple Syrup )

Maple sugar is condensed solid sugar made of maple syrup.

Starch Syrup

A starch-based sweetener, it contains about 15∼25 % water and its sweetness is less than half that of refined sugar.

In Europe and North America, starch syrup is called corn syrup since it is made of cornstarch.

( Mizu-ame )

When you make rolled cakes, adding some starch syrup or honey can make it moister and easier to roll up. It also makes the color darker.


Eggs contain balanced nutrition from proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals, it is regarded as a "perfect nutritious food" in Japan. Particularly, egg protein has balanced amount of amino acids.

( Tamago )

To produce a shiny crust, beat an egg well, add 1-tablespoon of water, mix well, and brush it onto the crust before baking.

Egg Yolk

The yolk contains all of the egg's fat and cholesterol, and about the half of the protein of an egg. 

( Ran-ou )

Lecithin in yolk can emulsify oil and water and create a smooth texture, known for mayonnaise. This emulsifying effect of yolk can also delay rancidity of bread.

Egg White

Egg white consists mainly of water and proteins. Egg white can become quite stiff when whisked with air. It is the base for fine and smooth meringue.

( Ran-paku )

Bread containing too much egg may sometimes become dry and hard, since the protein in the egg white stiffens during baking. To prevent this, you can substitute water for egg white.


Milk in Japan is pasteurized. It contains fat, protein, vitamin A and B2, and a significant amount of calcium.

( Gyu-nyu )

Milk contains about 10% of solid material. For this reason, if you substitute milk for water to be used for dough, you should add 10% more milk than the amount of water required in your recipe.

Milk Powder

Milk powder is a powdery substance made from skim milk.

( Fun-nyu )

Milk powder may soak up moisture easily and become stiff. For baked goods, milk powder is normally mixed and sifted with flour.

Evaporated Milk, Condensed Milk

Evaporated milk is produced by condensing skim milk and contains no sugar. Condensed milk is the same as evaporated milk, but has sugar added.

( Eva- miruku / Condensu-miruku )

Once you open a bottle or can, keep it in the fridge and use it up within two weeks.

Sour Cream

Cream made by fermenting fresh cream.

( Sour Cream )

To make sour cream paste, mixing sour cream, cumin powder, and grind black pepper. The paste will taste delicious with cooked potatoes.


Yogurt is produced by fermenting milk or defatted milk with lactic acid bacterial. There are types with/without sugar, defatted etc. Common non-sugar yogurt contains about 88 % of water and significant amount of calcium like milk.

( Yogurt )

You can substitute yogurt for sour cream for your cooking. To do this, put yogurt in a fine strainer, and leave in a fridge over night to drain excess whey of yogurt. What you use for cooking is the thicker yogurt cream, but whey can make a healthy drink by adding a little bit of honey.

Fresh Cream

Cream made from cow’s milk. For domestic purposes, there are two types: one with 35∼38 % of milk fat, and another with 45∼48% milk fat. For whipping cream, a higher fat content is recommended.

( Nama Cream )

Fresh cream is very delicate and should not be shaken before you use it as it may turn into butter. Keep it in the fridge under 10℃.


Cheese is produced by fermenting milk with lactic acid bacteria and draining excess whey to form a solid substance. There are many variations depending on source milk, production, aging period.

( Cheese )

Fresh cheese (such as fresh mozzarella) is delicious with Japanese miso dressing*.

*To make miso dressing, stir together 2-tbs shiro-miso ("white" miso), 1-tbs rice vinegar, 1-tbs mirin (Japanese rice wine), 1-tbs caster sugar, and a dash of sesame oil.


Baker's yeast is made of cultured saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast can be active at the range of temperature about 28∼32 ℃. It becomes less active below 4℃ and also over 40℃, and dies over 60℃.

There are several types of baker's yeast for domestic use, including fresh yeast, dry yeast, and instant dry yeast, depending on the manufacturing method.

( Yeast )

For bread dough, active dry yeast can be used at 50% of the weight of fresh yeast, and instant dry yeast can be used at 40% of the weight of fresh one.

Since temperature of dough mixed by machine is slightly higher than artisan dough, amount of yeast to be mixed may be slightly less than with other methods.

Fresh Yeast

Fresh yeast is cultured, active yeast strains. Fresh yeast can be used for any type of baking, however, some products may not suitable for rich bread that contains lots of sugar.

For baking, fresh yeast can be mixed directly with water.

( Nama Yeast )

Fresh yeast should be wrapped with foil and kept in an airtight container, so that it will keep its moisture. Once the package is open, it should be kept in the fridge at the temperature no higher than 4℃, and used up within two weeks.

For this reason, many people choose to use instant dried yeast at home.

Dry Yeast

Dry yeast is dried fresh yeast and contains 6-8% water. It is recommended for baking lean bread that contains little or no sugar.

Before mixing with other ingredients like flour, dry yeast should be mixed in warm water (38∼40 ℃) with sugar, and left to pre-ferment for about 5 minutes.

( Dry Yeast )

It is not true that fresh yeast is superior in flavour to dry yeast. If used properly, dry yeast can produce the exact same bread as the one with fresh yeast.

Do not use too much dry yeast or set the dough temperature higher than necessary. It is always best to knead the dough well and let it rise slowly.

Instant Dry Yeast

Instant dry yeast is dried and granulated fresh yeast, and has light brown colour. Depending on whether you are baking with or without sugar, there are two types.

It is said to be weaker in aroma than dry yeast, but more active and fermentative.

( Instant Dry Yeast )

Dry and instant dry yeast can be kept without losing its activation up to two years, if they are covered well in an airtight container in the fridge.


Leaven is made by culturing a mixture of wild yeasts found on fruit, vegetables, grains, etc.

Compared to cultured yeast, leaven is called tennen-koubo (which means "natural leaven" in Japanese).

The longer it is cultured, the stronger and more stable its fermentation becomes.

( Tennen-koubo )

Leaven made by wild yeast is less active in its fermentation process and it takes longer time (hours or even days) at lower temperature to rise, compared to one with yeast product. As a result, bread will have great flavour and taste.

If you are using yeast, try not to use too much of it. Take time for fermentation process at a lower temperature. This will improve both in flavour and taste of bread.


Raisins are dried grapes.

Both oil-coated and non-oil-coated forms are available in Japan.

The sweet flavour and unique texture of raisins are good for baking. Bread with raisins also taste delicious with red wine and blue cheese.

( raisin )

When you mix raisins with your dough, use 20% of the weight of your dough. Mixing too much may result in poorly developed gluten, and the bread does not rise high as baked.

Dry and hard raisins can be softened by soaking them in rum overnight. Removing the liquid and coating them in flour before mixing will prevent raisins from sinking down to the bottom of the dough.

Dried Currants

Dried currants are made of Zante grapes.

They are smaller but the acidity is stronger than raisins.

( Dried Currant )

Most dried fruits contain lots of fiber, and some also contain antioxidants, calcium and other vitamins.

Dried Sultana Raisins

Sultana raisins are made of sultana grapes, a type of light green colour grape.

Their skins are thinner but the acidity is stronger than raisins.

( Sultana Raisin )

Dry and hard raisins can be softened, buy leaving them in rum over night. Removing the liquid and coating them in flour before mixing will prevent raisins from sinking down to the bottom of the dough.

Dried Fig

Dried fig can be crushed into a paste with a little water, and mixed with batter or dough.

( Hoshi-ichijiku )

Sweet flavour of dried fig and the texture of its tiny seeds are delicious with any bake goods. They can be added as is to the dough, or made into paste to mix with.

Dried Cranberries

The delicate taste and beautiful red colour of dried cranberries can give a special touch to homemade bread and cakes.

( Dried Cranberry )

As most dried cranberries are tender and moist, it is better to mix them directly into the dough. Coat them with some flour before mixing with dough. This will prevent them from sinking down to the bottom of the dough.

Dried Blueberry

Dried blueberries can be sprinkled on cereals, and are delicious when mixed into baked goods, particularly cheesecakes.

( Dried Blueberry )

Dried blueberries are rather expensive compared to other dried fruit in Japan. For baked goods like muffins and soda bread, you can mix fresh (or frozen) blueberries instead.


Oatmeal consists of rolled or coarsely ground oats.

( Oatmeal )

Rolled oats can be used for cookies and bread, or sprinkled on bread to give a great aroma when baked. Adding some rolled oats as you steam rice can give a unique texture.


Walnuts should be roasted before mixed in batter or dough for baking.

( Kurumi )

Any nuts to be mixed in batter or dough for baking should be roasted at about 160 to 180℃ for 10 to 15 minutes and cooled before mixing.


Hazelnuts should be roasted before mixed in batter or dough for baking.

( Hazelnut )

Nuts in general are very nutritious but may easily go rancid due to the oils they contain. It is recommended to buy only the amount you need, and store in the fridge.

The rich flavour and chunky texture of walnuts go particularly well with vanilla and chocolate.

Caraway Seeds

Seeds of caraway, a plant in the family apiaceae.

They have a gentle taste and a slightly bitter flavour.

Adding them in rye bread dough produces a delicious flavour during baking.

( Caraway Seed )

Well known as little bitter brown bits in rye bread, caraway seeds are delicious with German dishes, such as sausages and sauerkraut, and also with munster cheese of Alsace, France. They may also be used for marinating sauce for meat.

Poppy Seed

Poppy seeds available in Japan are all pre-roasted, and there are two types, cream yellow seeds and blue-gray seeds.

( Poppy Seed )

Poppy seeds can be sprinkled on bread, such as hamburger buns, bagels, and Japanese anpan (bread with sweet black bean paste).

Blue-gray type can be cooked with sugar into paste and mixed into dough and bake.

Anise Seeds

Seeds of a plant in the family apiaceae, the same group of caraway.

Anis seeds have a slightly sweet taste and distinctive sweet flavour, sometimes referred to as licorice.

( Anis Seed )

Anis seed is often used to add a sweet flavour to bake goods like biscuits and cakes. They are delicious with bake goods that include dried figs, and are sometimes used in the Italian Easter bread pannetone.


Seeds of a plant in the family pedaliaceae. In Japan, white, black, and gold sesame is available.

( Goma )

Sesame seeds can be mixed in dough or batter for cookies. Sesame paste can be mixed in dough to give great aroma during baking.

Vanilla Pod

Dried pod of a vanilla, a type of orchid, from tropical regions.

Its distinctive sweet flavour is best known to match with any milk-contained sweets.

( Vanilla )

In addition to the vanilla pod, vanilla-flavouring products, such as vanilla essence, extract, and oil is available in Japan.


A root of ginger. Dried ginger, sugar-coated preservation and powder type is available in Japan.

( Shouga )

Ginger is slightly sweet and refreshing, with a distinctive, pungent taste. It is best to use small amounts in baking, since the taste is quite strong.


Cocoa solids are made by grinding cocoa seeds that are fermented, dried, and roasted, and then separating the cocoa butter.

( Kokoa )

For baked goods, choose pure cocoa powder without any additives.


Chocolate is a mixture of cocoa solids with cocoa butter and sugar.

Chocolate is basically divided in two groups: eating chocolate and couverture, a high quality baking chocolate. Both have three types: dark chocolate (called "sweet chocolate" in Japan), milk chocolate; and white chocolate.

( Chocolate )

Couverture is silky smooth and glossy when melted, and has rich flavour of cocoa. The cocoa and sugar contents vary according to the product. If you are not sure which one to use for your bake goods, it may be recommended to choose one with 55% cocoa content to start with.

Dark Chocolate

Chocolate is of a mixture of cocoa solid, sugar, liquor and emulsifier. The more cacoa contained, the darker the colour, and the stronger its bitterness.

Dark chocolate is also called bitter chocolate.

( Sweet Chocolate )

Chocolate should be kept in a cool, dark place at 15∼18℃. When chocolate is taken out of the refrigerator, it should be sit at room temperature before opening the package, as condensation affects its quality.

Chocolate is very delicate and easily goes rancid, so it should not stored for long, even in the fridge.

Milk Chocolate

Sweet chocolate with milk powder added.

( Milk Chocolate )

For confectionary purpose, there is a type of chocolate chips that melts at a higher temperature, and is suitable for chocolate bread and cupcakes.

White Chocolate

Chocolate of a mixture of cocoa butter, sugar and milk powder.

( White Chocolate )

White chocolate is delicious with lemon flavour and fresh cheese.

Lemon Oil

Lemon oil is a flavouring extracted from lemon peel. It is used to flavour baked goods.

( Lemon Oil )

It can be used as a substitute for fresh lemon zest in many recipes.

Vanilla Extract

An alcoholic flavouring solution containing the extracted flavour of vanilla beans and additives.

( Vanilla Extract )

Most products are volatile and not recommended for baking cakes and bread.

Vanilla Essence

An alcoholic flavouring solution containing the extracted flavour of vanilla beans and additives.

( Vanilla Essence )

Most products are volatile and not recommended for baking cakes and bread.

Vanilla Oil

An oil-soluble flavouring solution containing the vanilla extract and additives.

( Vanilla Oil )

Most products are heat-resistant, and so are recommended for baking cakes and bread.


Liqueur is an alcoholic beverage, flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, roots, plants, etc. There are many types of liqueur, depending on the flavour source.

( Liqueur )

Making a best match of liqueur and fruit may improve flavour of bread and cakes. Popular combinations include: cranberries or blueberry with kirsch (cherry brandy), and marmalade or chocolate with grand marnier (orange liqueur).

Add some liqueur to sugar syrup*, and brush the syrup on the baked cake to give moisture and improve flavour.

*To make sugar syrup, put 50ml of water and 50g of granulated sugar in a saucepan, heat until sugar dissolves, and remove from heat. You can add 50ml of liqueur at this point and let it cool.


Rum is an alcoholic beverage made by distilling sugarcane.

Rum varieties vary from light to dark, and typically contain 40∼50 % alcohol.

( Rum )

Dried fruits, such as raisins and berries, can be left in dark rum and left for at least a day (or even a year) for the softness and aroma.

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